Emotional and Cognitive Development
Every child’s successful emotional and cognitive development depends on the influence of both nature and nurture. Our cognitive behaviors and developments are linked to our genetics, childhood experiences, as well as our exposures to our surrounding environment.
As we learned during the early stages of our class, the environment can have a direct both influence and indirect influence on our behavior and genetic. In the podcast “growing up” the speaker explains that by given children access to power tools and other equipment we can not only help them develop their curiosity but can provide them with a way to explore new ideas and prepare for a better future. He explains that in today’s society everything that we do is a building block for our future.
To better develop our children, they need to be offered an environment in which they can explore their curiosity concerning their feelings and actions. Such an environment can also be both cognitively and physically stimulating, offering them new and unique concepts while maintaining awareness, helping them better enhance their experience with societal norms and other activities that can help them thrive. Without this crucial piece, children may not be unable to function in society at their maximum ability.
Vygotsky also offers a similar social learning theory that suggests children develop and experience society in different zones, and how each of those zones is connected and can affect development. Bandura, also, suggests that all children learn their behaviors and ideas through interaction with society and that the behaviors they learn influence how they think and believe. Proving how our environment can play a crucial role in our development.
Therefore, it is necessary to implement new techniques in our children’s cognition and emotional development. It is the environment that allows children to develop and achieve their emotional and cognitive development; allowing children to learn about life in which they can experiment freely and be productive with minor limitation.
|One month||Watches person when spoken to.|
|Two months||Smiles at familiar person talking. Begins to follow moving person with eyes.|
|Four months||Shows interest in bottle, breast, familiar toy, or new surroundings.|
|Five months||Smiles at own image in mirror. Looks for fallen objects.|
|Six months||May stick out tongue in imitation. Laughs at peekaboo game. Vocalizes at mirror image. May act shy around strangers.|
|Seven months||Responds to own name. Tries to establish contact with a person by cough or other noise.|
|Eight months||Reaches for toys out of reach. Responds to “no.”|
|Nine months||Shows likes and dislikes. May try to prevent face-washing or other activity that is disliked. Shows excitement and interest in foods or toys that are well-liked.|
|Ten months||Starts to understand some words. Waves bye-bye. Holds out arm or leg for dressing.|
|Eleven months||Repeats performance that is laughed at. Likes repetitive play. Shows interest in books.|
|Twelve months||May understand some “where is…?” questions. May kiss on request.|
|Fifteen months||Asks for objects by pointing. Starting to feed self. Negativism begins.|
|Eighteen months||Points to familiar objects when asked “where is…?” Mimics familiar adult activities. Know some body parts. Obeys two or three simple orders.|
|Two years||Names a few familiar objects. Draws with crayons. Obeys found simple orders. Participates in parallel play.|
|Two-and-a-half years||Names several common objects. Begins to take interest in sex organs. Gives full names. Helps to put things away. Peak of negativism.|
|Three years||Constantly asks questions. May count to 10. Begins to draw specific objects. Dresses and undresses doll. Participates in cooperative play. Talks about things that have happened.|
|Four years||May make up silly words and stories. Beginning to draw pictures that represent familiar things. Pretends to read and write. May recognize a few common words, such as own name.|
|Five years||Can recognize and reproduce many shapes, letters, and numbers. Tells long stories. Begins to understand the difference between real events and make-believe ones. Asks meaning of words.|
|SOURCE: Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, 5th ed . and Child Development Institute.|
Cognitive development is the construction of thought processes, including remembering, problem-solving, and decision-making, from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. healthofchildren.com
From: The influence of emotional interference on cognitive control: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies using the emotional Stroop task
Bjorklund, David F. Children’s Thinking: Cognitive Development and Individual Differences. Stamford, CT: Wadsworth Publishing, 2004.
Pica, Rae. Your Active Child: How to Boost Physical, Emotional, and Cognitive Development Through Age-Appropriate Activity. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
Thornton, Stephanie. Growing Minds: An Introduction to Children’s Cognitive Development. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
Wadsworth, Barry J. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive and Affective Development: Foundations of Constructivism , 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Allyn & Bacon, 2003.